Basic functionality of CDRV Environment:

Input side of DUT :
-- Generating traffic streams
-- Driving traffic into the design (stimuli)

Output side of DUT:
-- Checking these data streams
-- Checking protocols and timing

Collecting both the functional coverage and code coverage information.

Writing deterministic tests and random tests to achieve 100% coverage.

Verification Components Required For Cdcrv:

Stimulus generator
Assertion monitor


When building a verification environment, the verification engineer often starts by modeling the device input stimulus. In Verilog, the verification engineer is limited in how to model this stimulus because of the lack of high-level data structures. Typically, the verification engineer will create a array/memory to store the stimuli. SystemVerilog provides high-level data structures and the notion of dynamic data types for modeling stimulus. Using SystemVerilog randomization, stimulus is generated automatically. Stimulus is also processed in other verification components. SystemVerilog high-level data structures helps in storing and processing of stimulus in an efficient way.

Stimulus Generator

The generator component generates stimulus which are sent to DUT by driver. Stimulus generation is modeled to generate the stimulus based on the specification. For simple memory stimulus generator generates read, write operations, address and data to be stored in the address if its write operation. Scenarios like generate alternate read/write operations are specified in scenario generator. SystemVerilog provided construct to control the random generation distribution and order. Constraints defined in stimulus are combinatioural in nature where as constraints defined in stimulus generators are sequential in nature.

Stimulus generation can be directed or directed random or automatic and user should have proper controllability from test case. It should also consider the generation of stimulus which depends on the state of the DUT for example, Generating read cycle as soon as interrupt is seen. Error injection is a mechanism in which the DUT is verified by sending error input stimulus. Generally it is also taken care in this module.
Generally generator should be able to generate every possible scenario and the user should be able to control the generation from directed and directed random testcases.


Transactor does the high level operations like burst-operations into individual commands, sub-layer protocol in layered protocol like PciExpress Transaction layer over PciExpress Data Link Layer, TCP/IP over Ethernet etc. It also handles the DUT configuration operations. This layer also provides necessary information to coverage model about the stimulus generated. Stimulus generated in generator is high level like Packet is with good crc, length is 5 and da is 8~Rh0. This high level stimulus is converted into low level data using packing. This low level data is just a array of bits or bytes. Packing is an operation in which the high level stimulus values scalars, strings, array elements and struct are concatenated in the specified manner.


The drivers translate the operations produced by the generator into the actual inputs for the design under verification. Generators create inputs at a high level of abstraction namely, as transactions like read write operation. The drivers convert this input into actual design inputs, as defined in the specification of the designs interface. If the generator generates read operation, then read task is called, in that, the DUT input pin "read_write" is asserted.


Monitor reports the protocol violation and identifies all the transactions. Monitors are two types, Passive and active. Passive monitors do not drive any signals. Active monitors can drive the DUT signals. Sometimes this is also refered as receiver. Monitor converts the state of the design and its outputs to a transaction abstraction level so it can be stored in a 'score-boards' database to be checked later on. Monitor converts the pin level activities in to high level.

Assertion Based Monitor

Assertions are used to check time based protocols, also known as temporal checks.
Assertions are a necessary compliment to transaction based testing as they describe the pin level, cycle by cycle, protocols of the design. Assertions are also used for functional coverage.

Data Checker

The monitor only monitors the interface protocol. It doesn't check the whether the data is same as expected data or not, as interface has nothing to do with the date. Checker converts the low level data to high level data and validated the data. This operation of converting low level data to high level data is called Unpacking which is reverse of packing operation. For example, if data is collected from all the commands of the burst operation and then the data is converted in to raw data , and all the sub fields information are extracted from the data and compared against the expected values. The comparison state is sent to scoreboard.


Scoreboard is sometimes referred as tracker. Scoreboard stores the expected DUT output. Scoreboard in Verilog tends to be cumbersome, rigid, and may use up much memory due to the lack of dynamic data types and memory allocation. Dynamic data types and Dynamic memory allocation makes it much easier to write a scoreboard in SystemVerilog. The stimulus generator generated the random vectors and is sent to the DUT using drivers. These stimuli are stored in scoreboard until the output comes out of the DUT. When a write operation is done on a memory with address 101 and data 202, after some cycles, if a read is done at address 101, what should be the data?.The score board recorded the address and data when write operation is done. Get the data stored at address of 101 in scoreboard and compare with the output of the DUT in checker module. Scoreboard also has expected logic if needed. Take a 2 inputs and gate. The expect logic does the "and " operation on the two inputs and stores the output".


This component has all the coverage related to the functional coverage groups.


Utilities are set of global tasks which are not related to any protocol. So this module can be reused across projects without any modification to code. Tasks such as global timeout, printing messages control, seeding control, test pass/fail conditions, error counters etc. The tasks defined in utilities are used by all other components of the TestBench.


Environment contains the instances of all the verification component and Component connectivity is also done. Steps required for execution of each component is done in this.


Tests contain the code to control the TestBench features. Tests can communicate with all the TestBench components. Once the TestBench is in place, the verification engineer now needs to focus on writing tests to verify that the device behaves according to specification.

Asic Design
Bottle Neck In Asic Flow
Functional Verification Need
Linear Testbench
Linear Random Testbench
How To Check The Results
Self Checking Testbenchs
How To Get Scenarios Which We Never Thought
How To Check Whether The Testbench Has Satisfactorily Exercised The Design
Types Of Code Coverage
Statement Coverage
Block Coverage
Conditional Coverage
Branch Coverage
Path Coverage
Toggle Coverage
Fsm Coverage
Make Your Goal 100 Percent Code Coverage Nothing Less
Functional Coverage
Coverage Driven Constraint Random Verification Architecture
Phases Of Verification
Ones Counter Example
Verification Plan

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